Michelle Bachelet

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
This name uses Spanish naming customs: the first or paternal family name is Bachelet and the second or maternal family name is Jeria.
Michelle Bachelet
Michelle Bachelet foto campaña (Recortada).jpg
President of Chile
Assumed office
11 March 2014
Preceded by Sebastián Piñera
In office
11 March 2006 – 11 March 2010
Preceded by Ricardo Lagos
Succeeded by Sebastián Piñera
Executive Director of the United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women
In office
14 September 2010 – 15 March 2013
Preceded by Position created
Succeeded by Lakshmi Puri
President pro tempore of the Union of South American Nations
In office
23 May 2008 – 10 August 2009
Preceded by Position created
Succeeded by Rafael Correa
Minister for National Defense
In office
7 January 2002 – 1 October 2004
President Ricardo Lagos
Preceded by Mario Fernández
Succeeded by Jaime Ravinet
Minister for Health
In office
11 March 2000 – 7 January 2002
President Ricardo Lagos
Preceded by Álex Figueroa
Succeeded by Osvaldo Artaza
Personal details
Born Verónica Michelle Bachelet Jeria
(1951-09-29) 29 September 1951 (age 63)
Santiago, Chile
Political party Socialist Party of Chile
Other political
Concertación (1988–2013)
Nueva Mayoría (2013–present)
Spouse(s) Jorge Leopoldo Dávalos Cartes (Separated)
Children 3
Alma mater University of Chile
Religion None[1]
Website Official website

Verónica Michelle Bachelet Jeria (Spanish pronunciation: [βeˈɾonika miˈtʃel βatʃeˈle ˈxeɾja]; born 29 September 1951) is a Socialist Party politician and the President of Chile since 11 March 2014. She previously served as President from 2006–2010, becoming the first woman in her country to do so. After leaving the presidency, she was appointed the first executive director of the newly created United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women (UN Women). In December 2013, Bachelet was re-elected as President of Chile with over 62% of the vote, bettering the 53.5% she obtained in 2006. She is the first person since 1932 to win the presidency of Chile twice in competitive elections.[2]

Bachelet, a physician with studies in military strategy, served as Health Minister and Defense Minister under her predecessor, President Ricardo Lagos. She is a separated mother of three and describes herself as an agnostic.[1] Aside from her native Spanish, she also speaks, with varying levels of fluency, English, German, Portuguese and French.[3][4]

Family background[edit]

Bachelet is the second child of archaeologist Ángela Jeria Gómez and Air Force Brigadier General Alberto Bachelet Martínez. Bachelet’s paternal great-great-grandfather, Louis-Joseph Bachelet Lapierre, was a French wine merchant from Chassagne-Montrachet who emigrated to Chile with his Parisian wife, Françoise Jeanne Beault, in 1860; he was hired as a wine-making expert by the Subercaseaux vineyards in southern Santiago. Bachelet Lapierre’s son, Germán, was born in Santiago, Chile, in 1862, and married in 1891 to Luisa Brandt Cadot, a Chilean of French and Swiss descent, giving birth in 1894 to Alberto Bachelet Brandt. Bachelet’s maternal great-grandfather, Máximo Jeria Chacón, of Spanish (Basque region) and Greek heritage, was the first person to receive a degree in agronomic engineering in Chile and founded several agronomy schools in the country.[5] He married Lely Johnson, the daughter of an English physician working in Chile. Their son, Máximo Jeria Johnson, married Angela Gómez Zamora. Their union produced five children, the fourth of whom is Bachelet’s mother.[6]

Early life and career[edit]

Childhood years[edit]

Bachelet was born in La Cisterna,[7] a middle class suburb of Santiago. She was named after French actress Michèle Morgan.[8] Bachelet spent many of her childhood years traveling around her native Chile, moving with her family from one military base to another. She lived and attended primary school in Quintero, Cerro Moreno, Antofagasta and San Bernardo. In 1962 she moved with her family to the United States, where her father was assigned to the military mission at the Chilean Embassy in Washington, D.C. Her family lived for almost two years in Bethesda, Maryland, where she attended Western Junior High School and learned to speak English fluently.[9]

Returning to Chile in 1964, she graduated from high school in 1969 at Liceo Nº 1 Javiera Carrera, a prestigious girls' public school, finishing near the top of her class.[10][11] There she was president of her class, a member of the school's choir and volleyball teams, and part of a theater group and a music band, "Las Clap Clap", which she co-founded and which toured around several school festivals. In 1970, after obtaining a relatively high score in the university admission test, she entered medical school at the University of Chile, where she was selected in the 1st position (out of 160 admitted applicants).[10][11][12] She originally intended to study sociology or economics, but was prevailed upon by her father to study medicine instead.[13] She has said she opted for medicine because it was "a concrete way of helping people cope with pain" and "a way to contribute to improve health in Chile."[3]

Detention and exile[edit]

Facing growing food shortages, the government of Salvador Allende placed Bachelet's father in charge of the Food Distribution Office. When General Augusto Pinochet suddenly came to power via the 11 September 1973 coup d'état, Bachelet's father was detained at the Air War Academy under charges of treason. Following months of daily torture at Santiago's Public Prison, he suffered a cardiac arrest that resulted in his death on 12 March 1974. In early January 1975, Bachelet and her mother were detained at their apartment by two DINA agents,[14] who blindfolded and drove them to Villa Grimaldi, a notorious secret detention center in Santiago, where they were separated and subjected to interrogation and torture.[15] In 2013 Bachelet revealed she had been interrogated by DINA chief Manuel Contreras there.[16] Some days later, Bachelet was transferred to Cuatro Álamos ("Four Poplars") detention center, where she was held until the end of January. Thanks to sympathetic connections in the military, Bachelet was able to go into exile in Australia,[17] where her older brother, Alberto, had moved in 1969.[10] Of her torture, Bachelet said in 2004 that "it was nothing in comparison to what others suffered". She was "yelled at using abusive language, shaken," and both she and her mother were "threatened with the killing of the other." She was "never tortured with electricity," but she did see it being done to other prisoners.[18]

In May 1975 Bachelet left Australia and later moved to East Germany, to an apartment assigned to her by the German Democratic Republic (GDR) government in Am Stern, Potsdam; her mother joined her a month later, living separately in Leipzig. In October 1976, she began working at a communal clinic in the Babelsberg neighborhood, as a preparation step to continue her medical studies at an East German university. During this period, she met architect Jorge Leopoldo Dávalos Cartes, another Chilean exile, whom she married in 1977. In January 1978 she went to Leipzig to learn German at the Karl Marx University's Herder Institute (now the University of Leipzig). Her first child with Dávalos, Jorge Alberto Sebastián, was born there in June 1978. She returned to Potsdam in September 1978 to continue her medical studies at the Humboldt University of Berlin for two years. Five months after enrolling as a student, however, she obtained authorization to return to her country.[19]

Return to Chile[edit]

After four years in exile, Bachelet finally returned to Chile in 1979. Her medical school credits from the GDR were not transferred, forcing her to resume her studies from where she had left off before fleeing the country.[citation needed] She graduated as M.D. on 7 January 1983.[20] She wished to work in the public sector wherever attention was most needed, applying for a position as general practitioner; her petition was rejected by the military government on "political grounds". [3] Instead, because of her academic performance and published papers, she earned a scholarship from the Chilean Medical Chamber to specialize in pediatrics and public health at the University of Chile's Roberto del Río Children's Hospital (1983–86). She completed the program with excellent grades but did not obtain her certification because of "financial reasons".[21]

During this time she also worked at PIDEE (Protection of Children Injured by States of Emergency Foundation), a non-governmental organization helping children of the tortured and missing in Santiago and Chillán. She was head of the foundation's Medical Department between 1986 and 1990. Some time after her second child with Dávalos, Francisca Valentina, was born in February 1984, she and her husband legally separated. Between 1985 and 1987, Bachelet had a romantic relationship with Alex Vojkovic Trier,[22] an engineer and spokesman for the Manuel Rodríguez Patriotic Front, an armed group which among other activities attempted to assassinate Pinochet in 1986. The tryst turned into a minor issue during her presidential campaign, during which she argued that she never supported any of Vojkovic's activities.[5]

After Chile made a transition to democracy in 1990, Bachelet worked for the Ministry of Health's West Santiago Health Service and was a consultant for the Pan-American Health Organization, the World Health Organization and the German Corporation for Technical Cooperation. While working for the National AIDS Commission (Conasida) she became romantically involved with Aníbal Hernán Henríquez Marich, a fellow physician — and right-wing Pinochet supporter — who fathered her third child, Sofía Catalina, in December 1992; their relationship ended, however, a few years later. Between March 1994 and July 1997, Bachelet worked as Senior Assistant to the Deputy Health Minister. Driven by an interest in civil-military relations, in 1996 Bachelet began studies in military strategy at the National Academy of Political and Strategic Studies (ANEPE) in Chile, obtaining first place in her class.[3] Her student achievement earned her a presidential scholarship, permitting her to continue her studies in the United States at the Inter-American Defense College in Washington, D.C., completing a Continental Defense Course in 1998. That same year she returned to Chile to work for the Defense Ministry as Senior Assistant to the Defense Minister. She subsequently graduated from a Master's program in military science at the Chilean Army's War Academy.[citation needed]

Early political career[edit]

Involvement in politics[edit]

In her first year as a university student (1970), Bachelet became a member of the Socialist Youth (then presided by future deputy and later disappeared physician Carlos Lorca, who has been cited as her political mentor[23]), and was an active supporter of the Popular Unity. In the immediate aftermath of the coup, she and her mother worked as couriers for the underground Socialist Party directorate that was trying to organize a resistance movement; eventually almost all of them were captured and disappeared.[24]

Following her return from exile she became politically active during the second half of the 1980s, fighting—though not on the front line—for the re-establishment of democracy in Chile. In 1995 she became part of the party's Central Committee, and from 1998 until 2000 she was an active member of the Political Commission. In 1996 Bachelet ran against future presidential adversary Joaquín Lavín for the mayorship of Las Condes, a wealthy Santiago suburb and a right-wing stronghold. Lavín won the 22-candidate election with nearly 78% of the vote, while she finished fourth with 2.35%. At the 1999 presidential primary of the Concertación, Chile's governing coalition from 1990–2010, she worked for Ricardo Lagos's nomination, heading the Santiago electoral zone.[citation needed]

Minister of Health[edit]

Bachelet, as Minister of Defense, meeting with U.S. Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld in 2002

On 11 March 2000, Bachelet — virtually unknown at the time — was appointed Minister of Health by President Ricardo Lagos. She began an in-depth study of the public health-care system that led to the AUGE plan a few years later. She was also given the task of eliminating waiting lists in the saturated public hospital system within the first 100 days of Lagos's government. She reduced waiting lists by 90%, but was unable to eliminate them completely[5] and offered her resignation, which was promptly rejected by the President. She authorized free distribution of the morning-after pill for victims of sexual abuse, generating controversy.[citation needed]

Minister of National Defense[edit]

On 7 January 2002, she was appointed Minister of National Defense, becoming the first woman to hold this post in a Latin American country and one of the few in the world. While Minister of Defense she promoted reconciliatory gestures between the military and victims of the dictatorship, culminating in the historic 2003 declaration by General Juan Emilio Cheyre, head of the army, that "never again" would the military subvert democracy in Chile. She also oversaw a reform of the military pension system and continued with the process of modernization of the Chilean armed forces with the purchasing of new military equipment, while engaging in international peace operations. A moment which has been cited as key to Bachelet's chances to the presidency came in mid-2002 during a flood in northern Santiago where she, as Defense Minister, led a rescue operation on top of an amphibious tank, wearing a cloak and military cap.[5][25][26]

2005–2006 presidential election[edit]

Bachelet during a television debate in 2005.

In late 2004, following a surge of her popularity in opinion polls, Bachelet was established as the only CPD figure able to defeat Joaquín Lavín, and she was asked to become the Socialists' candidate for the presidency.[27] She was at first hesitant to accept the nomination as it was never one of her goals, but finally agreed because she felt she could not disappoint her supporters.[28] On 1 October of that year she was freed from her government post in order to begin her campaign and to help the CPD at the municipal elections held later that month. On 28 January 2005 she was named the Socialist Party's candidate for president. An open primary scheduled for July 2005 to define the sole presidential candidate of the CPD was canceled after Bachelet's only rival, Christian Democrat Soledad Alvear, a cabinet member in the first three CPD administrations, pulled out early due to a lack of support within her own party and in opinion polls.[citation needed]

At the December 2005 election, Bachelet faced the center-right candidate Sebastián Piñera (RN), the right-wing candidate Joaquín Lavín (UDI) and the leftist candidate Tomás Hirsch (JPM). As the opinion polls had forecast, she failed to obtain the absolute majority needed to win the election outright, winning 46% of the vote. In the runoff election on 15 January 2006, Bachelet faced Piñera, and won the presidency with 53.5% of the vote, thus becoming her country's first female elected president and the first woman who was not the wife of a previous head of state or political leader to reach the presidency of a Latin American nation in a direct election.[29]

On 30 January 2006, after being declared President-elect by the Elections Qualifying Court (Tricel), Bachelet announced her cabinet of ministers, which was unprecedentedly composed of an equal number of men and women, as was promised during her campaign. In keeping with the coalition's internal balance of power she named seven ministers from the Christian Democrat Party (PDC), five from the Party for Democracy (PPD), four from the Socialist Party (PS), one from the Social Democrat Radical Party (PRSD) and three without party affiliation.

First presidency (2006–2010)[edit]

The Bachelet Cabinet
Office Name Party Term
President Michelle Bachelet PS Mar. 11, 2006–Mar. 11, 2010
Interior Andrés Zaldívar DC Mar. 11, 2006–Jul. 14, 2006
Belisario Velasco (resigned) DC Jul. 14, 2006–Jan. 4, 2008
Edmundo Pérez Yoma DC Jan. 8, 2008–Mar. 11, 2010
Foreign Affairs Alejandro Foxley DC Mar. 11, 2006–Mar. 13, 2009
Mariano Fernández DC Mar. 13, 2009–Mar. 11, 2010
Defense Vivianne Blanlot PPD Mar. 11, 2006–Mar. 27, 2007
José Goñi PPD Mar. 27, 2007–Mar. 12, 2009
Francisco Vidal PPD Mar. 12, 2009–Mar. 11, 2010
Finance Andrés Velasco Ind. Mar. 11, 2006–Mar. 11, 2010
Gen. Sec. of the
Paulina Veloso PS Mar. 11, 2006–Mar. 27, 2007
José Antonio Viera-Gallo PS Mar. 27, 2007–Mar. 10, 2010
Gen. Sec. of
Ricardo Lagos Weber PPD Mar. 11, 2006–Dec. 6, 2007
Francisco Vidal PPD Dec. 6, 2007–Mar. 12, 2009
Carolina Tohá PPD Mar. 12, 2009–Dec. 14, 2009
Pilar Armanet PPD Dec. 18, 2009–Mar. 11, 2010
Economy Ingrid Antonijevic PPD Mar. 11, 2006–Jul. 14, 2006
Alejandro Ferreiro DC Jul. 14, 2006–Jan. 8, 2008
Hugo Lavados DC Jan. 8, 2008–Mar. 11, 2010
Clarisa Hardy PS Mar. 11, 2006–Jan. 8, 2008
Paula Quintana PS Jan. 8, 2008–Mar. 11, 2010
Education Martín Zilic DC Mar. 11, 2006–Jul. 14, 2006
Yasna Provoste (impeached) DC Jul. 14, 2006–Apr. 3, 2008
René Cortázar (interim) DC Apr. 3, 2008Apr. 18, 2008
Mónica Jiménez DC Apr. 18, 2008–Mar. 11, 2010
Justice Isidro Solís PRSD Mar. 11, 2006–Mar. 27, 2007
Carlos Maldonado PRSD Mar. 27, 2007–Mar. 11, 2010
Labor Osvaldo Andrade PS Mar. 11, 2006–Dec. 10, 2008
Claudia Serrano PS Dec. 15, 2008–Mar. 11, 2010
Public Works Eduardo Bitrán PPD Mar. 11, 2006–Jan. 11, 2008
Sergio Bitar PPD Jan. 11, 2008–Mar. 11, 2010
Health María Soledad Barría (resigned) PS Mar. 11, 2006–Oct. 28, 2008
Álvaro Erazo PS Nov. 6, 2008–Mar. 11, 2010
Housing &
Patricia Poblete DC Mar. 11, 2006–Mar. 11, 2010
Agriculture Álvaro Rojas DC Mar. 11, 2006–Jan. 8, 2008
Marigen Hornkohl DC Jan. 8, 2008–Mar. 11, 2010
Mining Karen Poniachik Ind. Mar. 11, 2006–Jan. 8, 2008
Santiago González PRSD Jan. 8, 2008–Mar. 11, 2010
Transport &
Sergio Espejo DC Mar. 11, 2006–Mar. 27, 2007
René Cortázar DC Mar. 27, 2007–Mar. 11, 2010
National Assets Romy Schmidt PPD Mar. 11, 2006–Jan. 6, 2010
Jacqueline Weinstein PPD Jan. 6, 2010–Mar. 11, 2010
Energy Karen Poniachik Ind. Mar. 11, 2006–Mar. 29, 2007
Marcelo Tokman PPD Mar. 29, 2007–Mar. 11, 2010
Women Laura Albornoz DC Mar. 11, 2006–Oct. 20, 2009
Carmen Andrade PS Oct. 20, 2009–Mar. 11, 2010
Culture & the
Paulina Urrutia Ind. Mar. 11, 2006–Mar. 11, 2010
Environment Ana Lya Uriarte PS Mar. 27, 2007–Mar. 11, 2010
Bachelet waving with other leaders at the inauguration ceremony in Valparaíso.
Presidential styles of
Michelle Bachelet
Flag of the President of Chile.svg
Reference style Su Excelencia, la Presidenta de la República.
"Her Excellency, the President of the Republic"
Spoken style Presidenta de Chile.
"President of Chile"
Alternative style Señora Presidenta.
"Madam President"

First days[edit]

Bachelet was sworn in as President of the Republic of Chile on 11 March 2006 in a ceremony held in a plenary session of the National Congress in Valparaíso which was attended by many foreign heads of states and delegates.[26] Much of Bachelet's first three months as president were spent working on 36 measures she had promised during her campaign to implement during her first 100 days in office. They ranged from simple presidential decrees, such as providing free health care for older patients, to complex bills to reform the social security system and the electoral system. For her first state visit, Bachelet chose Argentina, arriving in Buenos Aires on 21 March. There she met with president Néstor Kirchner, with whom she signed strategic agreements in energy and infrastructure, including the possibility of launching a bidding process to operate the Transandine Railway.[30]

Domestic affairs[edit]

Social policies[edit]

In March 2006 Bachelet created an advisory committee to reform the pension system, which was headed by former budget director Mario Marcel.[31] The commission issued its final report in July 2006,[32] and in March 2008 Bachelet signed the bill into law. The new legislation established a Basic Solidarity Pension (PBS) and a Solidarity Pension Contribution (APS), guaranteeing a minimum pension for the 60% poorest segment of the population, regardless of their contribution history.[33] The reform also grants a bonus to female pensioners for every child born alive.[34]

In October 2006 Bachelet enacted legislation to protect subcontracted employees, which would benefit an estimated 1.2 million workers.[35] In June 2009 she introduced pay equality legislation, guaranteeing equal pay for equal work in the private sector, regardless of gender.[36]

In September 2009 Bachelet signed the "Chile Grows with You" plan into law, providing comprehensive social services to vulnerable children from ages zero to six. That law also established a social welfare management framework called the "Intersectoral Social Protection System", made up of subsystems, such as "Chile Solidario" and "Chile Grows with You".[37]

Between 2008 and 2010 the Bachelet administration delivered a so-called "literary briefcase" (a box of books including encyclopedias, dictionaries, poetry works and books for both children and adults) to the 400 thousand poorest families with children attending primary school from first to fourth grade.[38]

In March 2009, Bachelet launched the "I Choose my PC" program, awarding free computers to poor seventh graders with excellent academic performance attending government-subsidized schools.[39] During 2009 and 2010 Bachelet delivered layettes to all babies born in public hospitals, which are about 80% of total births.[40][41] In January 2010, Bachelet promulgated a law allowing the distribution of emergency contraception pills in public and private health centers, including to persons under 14, without parental consent. The law also requires high schools to add a sexual education program to their curriculum.[42]

Student protests[edit]

Bachelet's first political crisis came in late April 2006, when massive high school student demonstrations—unseen in three decades—broke out throughout the country, demanding a rise of quality levels in public education. In June 2006, she sought to dampen the student protests by setting up an 81-member advisor committee, including education experts from all political backgrounds, representatives of ethnic groups, parents, teachers, students, school owners, university rectors, people from diverse religious denominations, etc. Its purpose was to propose changes to the country's educational system and serve as a forum to share ideas and views. The committee issued its final report in December 2006.[43] In August 2009, she signed the education reform bill into law, which created two new regulatory bodies: a Superintendency on Education and a Quality Agency.[44]


During her presidency Bachelet opened 18 new subway stations in Santiago, nine in 2006, one in 2009 and eight in 2010.[45][46] In December 2009 Bachelet announced the construction of a new subway line in Santiago, to be operational by 2014[47] (the date was later changed to mid-2016[48]).

In February 2007 Santiago's transport system was radically altered with the introduction of Transantiago, designed under the previous administration.[29] The system was nearly unanimously condemned by the media, the users and the opposition, significantly damaging her popularity, and leading to the sacking of her Transport minister. On her decision not to abort the plan's start, she said in April 2007 she was given erroneous information which caused her to act against her "instincts."[49]

In September 2008, Chile's Constitutional Court declared a US$400 million loan by the Inter-American Development Bank to fund the transport system unconstitutional. Bachelet — who had been forced to ask for the loan after Congress had refused to approve funds for the beleaguered program in November 2007 — made use of an emergency clause in the Constitution that grants funds equivalent to 2% of the fiscal budget.[50] In November 2008, she invoked the emergency clause again after Congress denied once again funds for the system for 2009.

2010 earthquake[edit]

On 27 February 2010, in the last week of summer vacations[51] and less than two weeks before Bachelet's term expired, Chile was ravaged by an 8.8-magnitude earthquake that killed more than 500 people, toppled apartment buildings and bridges and triggered tsunamis that wiped away entire fishing villages. Bachelet and the government were criticized for a "slow response" to the disaster, which hit on a Saturday at 3:34 a.m.[29] and left most of the country without electricity, phone or Internet access.[52][53][54] Bachelet declared a "state of catastrophe" and on Sunday afternoon sent military troops to the most affected areas in an effort to quell scenes of looting and arson.[29] She imposed night curfews in the most affected cities.[55] She was criticized for not deploying the troops fast enough.[56][57]

Human rights[edit]

In January 2009 Bachelet opened the Museum of Memory in Santiago, documenting the horrors of Pinochet's 16-and-a-half year dictatorship.[58] In November she promulgated a law (submitted to Congress during the previous administration) creating the National Institute for Human Rights, with the goal of protecting and promoting human rights in the country.[59] The law also allowed for the reopening of the Rettig and Valech commissions for 18 months.[60]

Other legislation passed[edit]

President Bachelet with Mayor of Pichilemu Roberto Córdova in January 2010, during the re-inauguration of the Agustín Ross Cultural Centre.

In August 2008 Bachelet signed a freedom of information bill into law, which became effective in April 2009.

In January 2010 Bachelet enacted a law creating the Ministry for the Environment. The new legislation also created the Environmental Evaluation Service and the Superintendency for the Environment.[61][62]


Bachelet was widely credited for resisting calls from politicians from her own coalition to spend the huge copper revenues to close the country’s income gap.[29][63] Instead in 2007 she created the Economic and Social Stabilization Fund, a sovereign wealth fund which accumulates fiscal surpluses which are above 1% of GDP.[64] This strategy allowed her to finance new social policies and provide economic stimulus packages when the 2008 financial crisis hit the country.[29]

During Bachelet’s four years in office the economy grew at an average of 3.3% (2.3% in per capita terms), with a high of 5.7% in 2006 and a negative growth of −1.0% in 2009, due to the global financial crisis. The minimum wage was increased at an average of 2% per year in real terms (the lowest of any president since 1990), while unemployment hovered between seven and eight percent during her first three years and rose to nearly 11% during 2009. Inflation averaged 4.5% during her term, reaching close to 9% during 2008, due to an increase in food prices.[65] Absolute poverty fell from 13.7% in November 2006 to 11.5% in November 2009.[66]

Political issues[edit]

Bachelet began her term with an unprecedented absolute majority in both chambers of Congress—before appointed senators were eliminated in the 2005 constitutional reforms the CPD never had a majority in the Senate—but she was soon faced with internal opposition coming from a number of dissatisfied lawmakers from both chambers of Congress, the so-called díscolos ("disobedient", "ungovernable"), which jeopardized the coalition's narrow—and historic[67]—Congress majority on a number of key executive-sponsored bills during much of her first half in office, and forced her to negotiate with a right-wing opposition she saw as being "obstructionist".[68][69] During the course of 2007 the CPD lost its absolute majority in both chambers of Congress, as several senators and deputies from that coalition became independent.

In December 2006, former dictator Augusto Pinochet died. Bachelet decided not to grant him a state funeral, an honour bestowed upon constitutionally elected Chilean presidents, but a military funeral as former commander-in-chief of the Army appointed by President Salvador Allende. She also refused to declare an official national day of mourning, but did authorize flags at military barracks to fly at half staff. Pinochet’s coffin was also allowed to be draped in a Chilean flag. Bachelet did not attend his funeral saying it would be "a violation of [her] conscience", and sent Defense Minister, Vivianne Blanlot.[70]

In April 2008, Bachelet’s Education Minister, Yasna Provoste, was impeached by Congress for her handling of a scandal involving mismanagement of school subsidies. Her conviction was the first for a sitting minister in 36 years.[71][72][73]

Foreign relations[edit]

Bachelet with former Argentine president Néstor Kirchner.


During her first year in office Bachelet faced continuing problems from neighbors Argentina and Peru. In July 2006 she sent a letter of protest to Argentine president Néstor Kirchner after his government issued a decree increasing export tariffs on natural gas to Chile, which was considered by Bachelet to be a violation of a tacit bilateral agreement. A month later a long-standing border dispute resurfaced after Argentina published some tourist maps showing contested territory in the south—the Southern Patagonian Ice Field (Campo de Hielo Patagónico Sur) — as Argentine, violating an agreement not to define a border over the area.[citation needed]


In early 2007 Peru accused Chile of unilaterally redefining their shared sea boundary in a law, passed by Congress, which detailed the borders of the new administrative region of Arica and Parinacota. The impasse was resolved by the Chilean Constitutional Tribunal, which declared the particular section of the law unconstitutional. In March 2007, the Chilean state-owned—but editorially independent—television channel TVN cancelled the broadcast of a documentary about the War of the Pacific after a cautionary call was made to the stations’ board of directors by Chilean Foreign Relations Minister Alejandro Foxley, apparently acting on demands made by the Peruvian ambassador to Chile;[citation needed] the show was finally broadcast in late May of that year. In August 2007 the Chilean government filed a formal diplomatic protest with Peru and summoned home its ambassador, after Peru published an official map claiming a part of the Pacific Ocean that Chile considers its sovereign territory. Peru said this was just another step in its plans to bring the dispute to the International Court of Justice in The Hague. In January 2008 Peru asked the court to consider the dispute, prompting Bachelet to summon home the Chilean ambassador in Lima for consultations.[74]

UN voting deadlock[edit]

Chile's October 16, 2006 vote in the United Nations Security Council election—with Venezuela and Guatemala deadlocked in a bid for the two-year, non-permanent Latin American and Caribbean seat on the Security Council—developed into a major ideological issue in the country and was seen as a test for Bachelet. The governing coalition was divided between the Socialists, who supported a vote for Venezuela, and the Christian Democrats, who strongly opposed it. The day before the vote the president announced (through her spokesman) that Chile would abstain, citing as reason a lack of regional consensus over a single candidate, ending months of speculation. In March 2007 Chile's ambassador to Venezuela, Claudio Huepe, revealed in an interview with teleSUR that Bachelet personally told him that she initially wanted to vote for Venezuela, but then "there were a series of circumstances that forced me to abstain."[75] The government quickly recalled Huepe and accepted his resignation.

Bachelet with Evo Morales and Lula da Silva at a Union of South American Nations summit in 2008.


In May 2008 Bachelet became the first President pro tempore of the Union of South American Nations (Unasur) and in September she called for an urgent summit, after Bolivian President Evo Morales warned of a possible coup attempt against him. The presidents of Bolivia, Ecuador, Uruguay, Argentina, Paraguay, Brazil and Colombia, and the Secretary-General of the Organization of American States, met with Bachelet at the La Moneda Palace in Santiago, where they agreed to send two commissions to Bolivia: one to mediate between the executive and the opposition, and another to investigate the killings in Pando Department.[76]

Cuba visit[edit]

In February 2009 Bachelet visited Cuba and met with Fidel Castro. There she urged the United States to put an end to the embargo. No Chilean head of state had visited the country in 37 years.[77] The meeting with Castro backfired after the Cuban leader wrote, a day later, that the "fascist and vengeful Chilean oligarchy is the same which more than 100 years ago robbed Bolivia of its access to the Pacific and of copper-rich lands in a humiliating war."[78][79][80]

Progressive Leaders summit[edit]

In March 2009, Bachelet hosted in Viña del Mar, the "Progressive Leaders Summit", meeting with U.S. Vice President Joe Biden, British Prime Minister Gordon Brown, Spanish Prime Minister José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero and Presidents Tabaré Vázquez of Uruguay, Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva of Brazil and Cristina Fernández de Kirchner of Argentina. The reunion garnered some media interest because it took place six days before the highly anticipated G-20 Summit in London.[81][82]


Continuing the coalition's free-trade strategy, in August 2006 Bachelet promulgated a free trade agreement with the People's Republic of China (signed under the previous administration of Ricardo Lagos), the first Chinese free-trade agreement with a Latin American nation; similar deals with Japan and India were promulgated in August 2007. In October 2006, Bachelet promulgated a multilateral trade deal with New Zealand, Singapore and Brunei, the Trans-Pacific Strategic Economic Partnership (P4), also signed under Lagos' presidency. She held free-trade talks with other countries, including Australia, Vietnam, Turkey and Malaysia. Regionally, she signed bilateral free trade agreements with Panama, Peru and Colombia.[citation needed]

Other policies[edit]

In October 2007 Bachelet granted an amnesty to undocumented migrants from other Latin American countries. The measure was expected to benefit around 15,000 Peruvians and 2,000 Bolivians.[83] In December 2007 Bachelet signed in Bolivia a trilateral agreement with the presidents of Brazil and Bolivia to complete and improve a 4,700 km road to connect the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, via Arica and Iquique in Chile and Santos in Brazil. In May 2008, following months of intense lobbying, Chile was elected as member of the United Nations Human Rights Council, obtaining the largest vote among Latin American countries.[84]

In December 2009 Chile became the first country in South America, and the second in Latin America after Mexico, to receive an invitation to join the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).[85] Bachelet signed the accession agreement in January 2010,[86] but it formally became a member in May 2010, after she had left office.[87]


Job-approval ratings.

Bachelet enjoyed an approval rating above 50% for her first three months in office, during the so-called "honeymoon period". Her popularity fell during the students protests that year, hovering in the mid 40s. In July she had a disastrous public relations incident when a group of residents she was visiting in the southern city of Chiguayante who were affected by a landslide berated her publicly on television, accusing her of using their tragedy to boost her falling popularity. One woman demanded that she leave the scene so rescue efforts could continue.[88][89] In July, after only four months in office, Bachelet was forced to reshuffle her cabinet, in what was the fastest ministerial adjustment since 1990.[90]

Bachelet's popularity dipped further in her second year, reaching a low of 35% approval, 46% disapproval in September 2007. This fall was mainly attributed to the Transantiago fiasco.[91] That same month she had a second negative incident when a group of earthquake and tsunami victims she was visiting in the southern region of Aisén received her bearing black flags, and accused her of showing up late.[92][93] The city mayor, who told Bachelet to "go to hell", later apologized.[94][95] Over the following 12 months, however, Bachelet's approval ratings did not improve. At the onset of the global financial crisis in September 2008 Bachelet's popularity was at a low 42%, but gradually her job approval ratings began to rise. When she left office in March 2010 her popular support was at a record 84%, according to conservative polling institute Adimark GfK.[96]

The Chilean Constitution does not allow a president to serve two consecutive terms[29] and Bachelet endorsed Christian Democratic Party candidate Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle for the December 2009 election.[97]

Political interregnum[edit]

In April 2010, Bachelet inaugurated her own think-tank, "Fundación Dialoga". Its headquarters are located in Providencia, a suburb of Santiago.[98]

Bachelet is a member of the Club of Madrid, the world’s largest forum of former heads of state and government.[99]

On 14 September 2010, Bachelet was appointed as head of the newly created United Nations body UN Women by UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon. She took office on 19 September 2010. On 15 March 2013 she announced her resignation.[100]

2013 presidential election[edit]

On 27 March 2013, Bachelet announced that she would seek a second term as President of Chile during the 2013 elections.[101] The well-respected CEP poll, released in May 2012, suggested that 51% of voters wished to see her become the next president, far ahead of any other would-be candidate.[102]

On 30 June 2013, Bachelet became's the Nueva Mayoría‍‍ '​‍s candidate for president after she won a four-way primary election with the support of five center and left parties (PS, PPD, PC, IC, MAS) and 73% of the vote.[103]

At the 17 November 2013 presidential election, Bachelet fell short of the absolute majority needed for an outright win. In the runoff election, held on 15 December of that year, she beat former senator and Minister of Labor Evelyn Matthei with over 62% of the vote, yet turnout was significantly lower than in the first round.[104]

Second presidency (2014–)[edit]

The Bachelet Cabinet
Office Name Party Term
President Michelle Bachelet PS Mar. 11, 2014–
Interior Rodrigo Peñailillo PPD Mar. 11, 2014–
Foreign Affairs Heraldo Muñoz PPD Mar. 11, 2014–
Defense Jorge Burgos PDC Mar. 11, 2014–
Finance Alberto Arenas PS Mar. 11, 2014–
Gen. Sec. of the
Ximena Rincón PDC Mar. 11, 2014–
Gen. Sec. of
Álvaro Elizalde PS Mar. 11, 2014–
Economy Luis Felipe Céspedes PDC Mar. 11, 2014–
Fernanda Villegas PS Mar. 11, 2014–
Education Nicolás Eyzaguirre PPD Mar. 11, 2014–
Justice José Antonio Gómez PRSD Mar. 11, 2014–
Labor Javiera Blanco Ind. Mar. 11, 2014–
Public Works Alberto Undurraga PDC Mar. 11, 2014–
Health Helia Molina (resigned) PPD Mar. 11, 2014–Dec. 30, 2014
Jaime Burrows (interim) PDC Dec. 30, 2014Jan. 23, 2015
Carmen Castillo Ind. Jan. 23, 2015–
Housing &
Paulina Saball PPD Mar. 11, 2014–
Agriculture Carlos Furche PS Mar. 11, 2014–
Mining Aurora Williams PRSD Mar. 11, 2014–
Transport &
Andrés Gómez-Lobo PPD Mar. 11, 2014–
National Assets Víctor Osorio IC Mar. 11, 2014–
Energy Máximo Pacheco PS Mar. 11, 2014–
Women Claudia Pascual PC Mar. 11, 2014–
Culture & the
Claudia Barattini Ind. Mar. 11, 2014–
Environment Pablo Badenier PDC Mar. 11, 2014–
Sports Natalia Riffo MAS Mar. 11, 2014–
Presidential styles of
Michelle Bachelet
Flag of the President of Chile.svg
Reference style Su Excelencia, la Presidenta de la República.
"Her Excellency, the President of the Republic"
Spoken style Presidenta de Chile.
"President of Chile"
Alternative style Señora Presidenta.
"Madam President"

Bachelet was sworn in as President of the Republic of Chile for a second time on 11 March 2014 at the National Congress in Valparaíso. Isabel Allende, daughter of former President Salvador Allende, as the newly elected President of the Senate, administered the affirmation of office to Bachelet, the first time in the country's history both parties involved were women.[105]


As of April 2015, President Bachelet's approval rating is 31 percent, compared to 61 percent disapproval. Chileans' support for her has dropped sharply since the revelations of corruption scandals such as the Caval scandal, which involved her son and daughter-in-law accepting millions of dollars in the form of a loan from Vice-Chairman of the Banco de Chile Andrónico Luksic Craig. The couple's company (Caval) used the money to purchase land and resell it at a $5 million profit after repaying the loan. President Bachelet maintains that she was unaware of her family's actions and found out about the agreement between Luksic and her daughter-in-law through the press.[106][107]


Awards and media recognition[edit]

Honorary degrees[edit]



  • Michelle Bachelet - Symbol des neuen Chile (Ebbo Demant/SWR, 2004)[145]
  • La hija del General ["The General's Daughter"] (María Elena Wood/2006)[146]




  1. ^ a b "Bachelet critica a la derecha por descalificarla por ser agnóstica" [Bachelet criticises the political right for discounting her because of her agnosticism] (in Spanish). El Mercurio. 30 December 2005. Retrieved 25 November 2014. 
  2. ^ Michelle Bachelet: primera mujer presidenta y primer presidente reelecto desde 1932 - BioBioChile
  3. ^ a b c d "Biografía Michelle Bachelet". Gobierno de Chile (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 12 March 2008. Retrieved 2 February 2007. 
  4. ^ "Biographical Sketch: Michelle Bachelet". UN Women. Retrieved 12 May 2012. [dead link]
  5. ^ a b c d "Biografías de Líderes Políticos CIDOB: Michelle Bachelet Jeria". Fundació CIDOB (in Spanish). 9 March 2007. Retrieved 18 May 2007. 
  6. ^ "Familia Jeria (Geria)". Genealog.cl. Retrieved 9 September 2011. 
  7. ^ http://www.24horas.cl/politica/decisionfinal/la-vida-de-bachelet-la-historia-de-chile-en-sus-espaldas-985245
  8. ^ http://www.radio-canada.ca/nouvelles/societe/2006/03/03/001-femmes-chili.shtml
  9. ^ Rohter, Larry (16 January 2006). "Woman in the News; A Leader Making Peace With Chile's Past". The New York Times. Retrieved 16 January 2006. 
  10. ^ a b c "La vida de la primera Presidenta de Chile". La Nación (in Spanish). 16 January 2006. Retrieved 16 January 2006. [dead link]
  11. ^ a b "Los años de Alvear y Bachelet en el Liceo 1". La Tercera (in Spanish). 10 October 2004. Retrieved 25 January 2008. [dead link]
  12. ^ "De 376 a 780 puntos: Los resultados de los políticos en la Prueba de Aptitud Académica" (in Spanish). El Mercurio. 2014-01-05. Michelle Bachelet. Año en que rindió: 1969. Verbal: 712. Matemáticas: 707. Biología: 724. Esp. Ciencias Sociales: 705. Física y Química: 603 575. Ciencias Naturales: 632. Ponderación: 720,6 para medicina en Universidad de Chile. Fue 113 de 160. 
  13. ^ "Biografía de Michelle Bachelet". La Nación (in Spanish). Retrieved 15 January 2006. [dead link]
  14. ^ "Bachelet confirma que Krassnoff participó en su detención". Emol.com. Retrieved 9 October 2013. 
  15. ^ Davison, Phil (12 December 2005). "Single mother poised to be Chilean President". The Independent (London, UK). Retrieved 12 December 2005. [dead link]
  16. ^ "Bachelet revela que fue interrogada por el jefe de la policía secreta de Pinochet". Internacional.elpais.com. Retrieved 9 October 2013. 
  17. ^ UN Women:Michelle Bachelet spotlights remarkable Australian women in her address to students at the Australian National University, 24 August 2012
  18. ^ "BACHELET DA SU TESTIMONIO DE TORTURA EN DICTADURA" (in Spanish). 14 November 2004. 
  19. ^ "Las huellas de Bachelet en Alemania Oriental". La Tercera (in Spanish). 9 April 2006. Archived from the original on 8 July 2006. Retrieved 9 April 2006. 
  20. ^ Registro Nacional de Prestadores Individuales de Salud[dead link], Superintendencia de Salud.
  21. ^ "Los currículos y biografías de los candidatos presidenciales contrastados con la realidad". El Mercurio D4 (in Spanish). 23 September 2013. 
  22. ^ "La historia del ex frentista que fue pareja de Bachelet". La Tercera (in Spanish). 10 July 2005. Archived from the original on 27 April 2006. Retrieved 10 July 2005. 
  23. ^ "El libro que emocionó a Bachelet". Qué Pasa? (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 12 January 2008. Retrieved 26 January 2008. 
  24. ^ "Las historias clandestinas de Bachelet". La Tercera (in Spanish). 9 December 2007. Retrieved 27 December 2007. 
  25. ^ Huneeus, Carlos, Berríos, Fabiola, y Gamboa, Ricardo (editores). "Las elecciones chilenas de 2005: partidos, coaliciones y votantes en transición", Santiago de Chile: Catalonia, 2007. ISBN 978-956-8303-60-0 In Google Books
  26. ^ a b "Asumió Bachelet e hizo historia". Lanacion.com.ar. Retrieved 13 September 2011. 
  27. ^ Franklin, Jonathan (22 November 2005). "'All I want in life is to walk along the beach, holding my lover's hand". The Guardian (London, UK). Retrieved 22 November 2005. 
  28. ^ Santa María, Orietta (19 January 2006). "'Estuve una semana encerrada en un cajón, vendada, atada'". Las Últimas Noticias (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 27 May 2006. Retrieved 19 January 2006. 
  29. ^ a b c d e f g Barrionuevo, Alexei (11 March 2010). "Michelle Bachelet profile". Topics.nytimes.com. Retrieved 10 September 2011. 
  30. ^ "Presidentes Bachelet y Kirchner firmaron acuerdo estratégico". Emol.com. 21 March 2006. Retrieved 12 May 2012. 
  31. ^ "Comisión Reforma Previsional será encabezada por Mario Marcel". Economia.terra.cl. Retrieved 9 September 2011. 
  32. ^ "Comisión Marcel propone equiparar edad de jubilación de hombres y mujeres". Emol.com. Retrieved 9 September 2011. 
  33. ^ Incentives under the New Pension Solidarity Pillar in Chile, Eduardo Fajnzylber. March 2010.
  34. ^ "Bono por hijo nacido vivo - Superintendencia de Pensiones - Gobierno de Chile". Safp.cl. Retrieved 9 September 2011. 
  35. ^ "Presidenta Bachelet promulgó la ley de Subcontratación". Cooperativa.cl. 16 October 2006. Retrieved 12 May 2012. 
  36. ^ "Bachelet promulga ley sobre igualdad de sueldos entre hombres y mujeres". Lanacion.cl. 2 June 2009. Retrieved 4 October 2011. [dead link]
  37. ^ Law 20,379, Chile Library of Congress.
  38. ^ Publicado por Cauquenesnet.com. "Bachelet comenzó la entrega del Maletín Literario". Dianoticias.cauquenesnet.com. Retrieved 12 May 2012. 
  39. ^ "Enlaces - CET - Ministerio de Educación". Enlaces.cl. Retrieved 9 September 2011. 
  40. ^ BioBioChile. "Presidenta Michelle Bachelet inicia entrega de ajuares a reciĂŠn nacidos". Biobiochile.cl. Retrieved 12 May 2012. 
  41. ^ "Bachelet inició entrega de ajuares para recién nacidos". 3tv.cl. 10 January 2009. Retrieved 12 May 2012. 
  42. ^ Law 20,418, Chile Library of Congress.
  43. ^ "Bachelet recibe informe de educaciĂłn agradeciendo labor del Consejo". Lanacion.cl. 11 December 2006. Retrieved 9 September 2011. [dead link]
  44. ^ "Bachelet promulgó la nueva Ley General de Educación". Cooperativa.cl. Retrieved 9 September 2011. 
  45. ^ "Bachelet inaugura Línea 4 A de Metro de Santiago". Emol.com. Retrieved 9 September 2011. 
  46. ^ "PRESIDENTA MICHELLE BACHELET INAUGURÓ EXTENSIÓN DE LA LÍNEA 2 NORTE DEL METRO QUE BENEFICIA A MÁS DE 670.000 PERSONAS". Mtt.gob.cl. 30 January 2007. Retrieved 9 September 2011. [dead link]
  47. ^ "Bachelet anuncia construcción de nueva línea del Metro". Emol.com. Retrieved 9 September 2011. 
  48. ^ "Cooperativa.cl" (PDF). Cooperativa.cl. 25 June 2013. Retrieved 9 October 2013. 
  49. ^ "Belisario Velasco afirma que Bachelet también conoció informe del Metro que advertía colapso del Transantiago". La Tercera (in Spanish). 30 July 2007. Archived from the original on 19 December 2007. Retrieved 24 December 2007. 
  50. ^ "UPDATE: Chile Govt To Use Emergency Funding For Transit System". Forexdaily.org.ru. 5 September 2008. Retrieved 9 September 2011. 
  51. ^ "MASIVO TERREMOTO DE MAGNITUD 8,8 SACUDE CHILE: 122 MUERTOS". El19digital.com. Retrieved 13 September 2011. 
  52. ^ "Ya son 723 los muertos por el fuerte terremoto de 8.8 grados que destruyó gran parte de Chile". Peru.com. Retrieved 16 September 2011. 
  53. ^ "Massive earthquake strikes Chile". BBC News. 28 February 2010. Retrieved 16 September 2011. 
  54. ^ Barrionuevo, Alexei (1 March 2010). "Chile Officials Call for Aid as Devastation Sinks In". Chile: NYTimes.com. Retrieved 16 September 2011. 
  55. ^ Hough, Andrew (3 March 2010). "Chile earthquake: President Michelle Bachelet 'failed to grasp scale of devastation'". London, UK: Telegraph. Retrieved 10 September 2011. 
  56. ^ "Chile's Leader Faces Criticism Over Quake Response". NPR. 3 March 2010. Retrieved 10 September 2011. 
  57. ^ Por Editor EA en Marzo 7, 2010 (7 March 2010). "Chile: Michelle Bachelet impresionada con objetos saqueados tras terremoto". Informe21.com. Retrieved 10 September 2011. 
  58. ^ "The Politics of Memory Museums". The Daily Beast. 31 March 2010. Retrieved 9 September 2011. 
  59. ^ BioBioChile. "Presidenta Bachelet promulga ley que crea el Instituto Nacional de Derechos Humanos". Biobiochile.cl. Retrieved 12 May 2012. 
  60. ^ Staff. "Mandatario recibió en La Moneda el segundo informe de la Comisión Valech". La Tercera. Retrieved 12 May 2012. 
  61. ^ "Bachelet promulgó ley que crea ministerio de Medio Ambiente". latercera.com. 31 July 2010. Retrieved 10 September 2011. 
  62. ^ "Chile: New Law Creates Ministry for the Environment, Other Environmental Agencies - Global Legal Monitor - Law Library of Congress (Library of Congress)". Loc.gov. Retrieved 10 September 2011. 
  63. ^ Rohter, Larry (7 January 2007). "Chile Copper Windfall Forces Hard Choices on Spending". Chile: Nytimes.com. Retrieved 10 September 2011. 
  64. ^ "Sovereign Wealth Fund Institute - Social and Economic Stabilisation Fund - Chile". Swfinstitute.org. Retrieved 10 September 2011. 
  65. ^ "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". World Economic Outlook Database. International Monetary Fund. April 2012. Retrieved 14 May 2012. 
  66. ^ "Panorama social de América Latina" (PDF). ECLAC. 2010. 
  67. ^ Carlos Huneeus. "REFORMA ELECTORAL EN CHILE" (PDF). p. 374. 
  68. ^ "La Moneda fustigó el "obstruccionismo" de la derecha en 2006". Radio Cooperativa (in Spanish). 26 December 2006. Retrieved 10 December 2007. 
  69. ^ "Gobierno quiere debate "pausado y sin presiones"". La Nación (in Spanish). 22 November 2007. Retrieved 10 December 2007. 
  70. ^ "Clashes Break out after Pinochet's death", Yahoo! News, 11 December 2006
  71. ^ "Chilean minister voted out of job". BBC News. 17 April 2008. Retrieved 16 September 2011. 
  72. ^ "La destitución de ministra por el Senado causa polémica en Chile". Eldeber.com.bo. 18 April 2008. Retrieved 16 September 2011. 
  73. ^ Sanhueza, José. "Las miradas de la política regional a la destitución de Yasna Provoste". Laopinon.cl. Retrieved 16 September 2011. 
  74. ^ "Chile-Peru spat over sea border". BBC News. 17 January 2008. Retrieved 9 September 2011. 
  75. ^ "Chilevisión Noticias Última Mirada". Chilevisión. 13 March 2007. Retrieved 13 March 2007. 
  76. ^ La Jornada (17 September 2008). "La cumbre de Unasur "abortó" un golpe contra Evo Morales, afirma Hugo Chávez". Jornada.unam.mx. Retrieved 9 September 2011. 
  77. ^ "Bachelet condemns US embargo on Cuba". Argentinaindependent.com. 12 February 2009. Retrieved 13 September 2011. 
  78. ^ Redacción BBC Mundo (13 February 2009). "Bachelet se reunió con Fidel Castro". BBC News. Retrieved 9 September 2011. 
  79. ^ Staff. "Fidel Castro critica a la oligarquía chilena". Peru21.pe. Retrieved 9 September 2011. 
  80. ^ "Fidel Castro afirma que la oligarquía chilena le arrebató el mar a Bolivia en la guerra de 1879". Larepublica.pe. Retrieved 13 September 2011. 
  81. ^ "Cumbre de líderes progresistas finaliza hoy en Viña del Mar". Emol.com. 28 March 2009. Retrieved 9 September 2011. 
  82. ^ Conway, Edmund (9 March 2009). "G20 ministers set for clash over economic crisis solutions". London, UK: Telegraph. Retrieved 13 September 2011. 
  83. ^ "Chile anuncia amnistía a inmigrantes". BBC News. 23 October 2007. Retrieved 9 September 2011. 
  84. ^ Chile obtiene cupo en Consejo de Derechos Humanos de la ONU[dead link], El Mercurio, 22 May 2008.
  85. ^ "Chile invited to become a member of the OECD". Oecd.org. Retrieved 10 September 2011. 
  86. ^ "Chile joins the OECD's economic club". Bbc.co.uk. 12 January 2010. Retrieved 10 September 2011. 
  87. ^ "Chile signs up as first OECD member in South America". OECD. 11 January 2010. Retrieved 9 March 2010. 
  88. ^ "Damnificados de Chiguayante acusan a Bachelet de abusar de la tragedia". Emol.com. Retrieved 9 September 2011. 
  89. ^ "Bachelet debió enfrentar la rabia de afectados por temporal en Chiguayante". Cooperativa.cl. 12 July 2006. Retrieved 9 September 2011. 
  90. ^ Ignacio Nieto. "Especiales Emol - Michelle Bachelet, a un año de su llegada a la Moneda". Emol.com. Retrieved 12 May 2012. 
  91. ^ "Life & Arts - First among unequals: Chile’s president". Ft.com. 29 September 2007. Retrieved 9 September 2011. 
  92. ^ "Con banderas negras protestan en Puerto Aisén por llegada de Bachelet". Emol.com. Retrieved 9 September 2011. 
  93. ^ "Alcalde de Puerto Aysén: La Presidenta "se puede ir a la punta del cerro"". Cooperativa.cl. 23 April 2007. Retrieved 9 September 2011. 
  94. ^ "Alcalde insistió que Bachelet "le faltó el respeto" a la gente de Aysén". Cooperativa.cl. 24 April 2007. Retrieved 9 September 2011. 
  95. ^ "Alcalde de Aysén ofreció disculpas públicas a Bachelet". Cooperativa.cl. 18 June 2007. Retrieved 9 September 2011. 
  96. ^ Washington, The (12 March 2010). "More quakes hit Chile as new president takes office". Washington Times. Retrieved 9 September 2011. 
  97. ^ "Bachelet: "Inequívocamente apoyo a Frei como candidato"". Lanacion.cl. 6 July 2009. Retrieved 9 September 2011. [dead link]
  98. ^ Staff (16 August 2011). "Bachelet inaugura Fundación Dialoga en contrapeso a la concentración de poderes existente en Chile". Biobiochile.cl. Retrieved 10 September 2011. 
  99. ^ "Michelle Bachelet | Club de Madrid". Clubmadrid.org. Retrieved 13 September 2011. 
  100. ^ Krause, Flavia. "Bachelet Quits UN to Return to Chile Before Elections". Bloomberg. Retrieved 9 October 2013. 
  101. ^ "Bachelet seeks a second term". Abcnews.go.com. Retrieved 9 October 2013. 
  102. ^ "Encuesta CEP: Bachelet lidera por lejos la carrera presidencial con 51% de las preferencias" (in Spanish). EMOL. 10 May 2012. Retrieved 14 May 2012. 
  103. ^ "Bachelet Wins Primary for Chile President". Online.wsj.com. Retrieved 4 July 2013. 
  104. ^ http://www.bbc.com/news/world-latin-america-25387340
  105. ^ http://www.bbc.com/news/world-latin-america-26528923
  106. ^ http://www.latercera.com/noticia/politica/2015/04/674-623575-9-adimark-aprobacion-a-presidenta-bachelet-cae-8-puntos-y-llega-a-un-31.shtml
  107. ^ http://www.ibtimes.co.uk/chilean-president-michelle-bachelets-son-sebastian-davalos-testifies-caval-corruption-scandal-1496219
  108. ^ "The 100 Most Powerful Women: #17 Michelle Bachelet". Forbes. 31 August 2006. Retrieved 31 August 2006. 
  109. ^ "The 100 Most Powerful Women: #22 Michelle Bachelet". Forbes. 19 August 2009. Retrieved 22 January 2010. 
  110. ^ "The 100 Most Powerful Women: #25 Michelle Bachelet". Forbes. 27 August 2008. Retrieved 28 August 2008. 
  111. ^ "The 100 Most Powerful Women: #27 Michelle Bachelet". Forbes. 31 August 2007. Retrieved 31 August 2007. 
  112. ^ "The World's 100 Most Powerful Women". Forbes. Forbes. Retrieved 24 June 2014. 
  113. ^ "Bachelet y De la Vega estrenan los premios Ramón Rubial". El Pais. 11 January 2007. Retrieved 16 September 2011. 
  114. ^ "The World's Most Influential People - The 2008 TIME 100 - Leaders & Revolutionaries - Michelle Bachele". Time. 1 May 2008. Retrieved 2 May 2008. 
  115. ^ "Congreso Judío Mundial entrega Premio Shalom a Presidenta Bachelet". Emol.com. Retrieved 16 September 2011. 
  116. ^ a b Bachelet fue premiada por mujeres líderes y luego se reunió con Cristina Kirchner - Infobae
  117. ^ "Conmebol condecoró a Bachelet". Oem.com.mx. Retrieved 13 September 2011. 
  118. ^ "Bachelet recibió el "Gran Collar Extraordinario" del Fútbol Sudamericano". Cooperativa.cl. Retrieved 13 September 2011. 
  119. ^ "Ex Presidenta Bachelet recibirá el premio "Mujer del Bicentenario"". Cooperativa.cl. Retrieved 16 September 2011. 
  120. ^ "Chaves y Bachelet, premiados por la Federación de Mujeres Progresistas". El Correo de Andalucía (in Spanish). 15 November 2010. Retrieved 16 September 2011. 
  121. ^ a b "Miami Honors Michelle Bachelet - Head of UN Women and Former President of Chile for Leadership" (PDF). Retrieved 16 September 2011. [dead link]
  122. ^ "WOLA's Human Rights Awards Ceremony and Benefit Gala". WOLA. 1 October 2012. Retrieved 17 December 2013. 
  123. ^ Staff (3 May 2011). "Remarks by Michelle Bachelet on Receiving Women's eNews' Newsmaker of the Decade Award". Unwomen.org. Retrieved 16 September 2011. 
  124. ^ "Bachelet recibe distinción del Ministerio de Defensa argentino por su lucha a favor de la igualdad de género". EFE via El Mostrador. 25 April 2012. 
  125. ^ M.D. (18 May 2012). "Colin Powell entrega condecoración a Bachelet y elogia su trayectoria" (PDF) (in Spanish). La Tercera. Retrieved 21 May 2012. 
  126. ^ "LOS 10 INTELECTUALES IBEROAMERICANOS MÁS INFLUYENTES 2012". Fp-es.org. Retrieved 9 October 2013. 
  127. ^ "La Republica". Larepublica.pe. 12 April 2006. Retrieved 13 September 2011. 
  128. ^ "Honoris causa a Bachelet". Lahora.com.gt. Retrieved 13 September 2011. 
  129. ^ "Oration given on 3 April 2008, presented at the Canning House Annual Lecture". essex.ac.uk. Retrieved 28 November 2011. 
  130. ^ "UPF awards Michelle Bachelet with a degree honoris causa". Upf.edu. Retrieved 13 September 2011. [dead link]
  131. ^ a b "Michelle Bachelet recibirá doble doctorado "honoris causa" en Argentina". Cooperativa.cl. Retrieved 13 September 2011. 
  132. ^ "Discurso de Michelle Bachelet al recibir Doctor Honoris Causa de la Universidad Internacional Menéndez Pelayo". Dialoga.cl. 23 August 2011. Retrieved 13 September 2011. 
  133. ^ "UASD otorgará Doctorado Honoris Causa a Michelle Bachelet, ex presidenta de Chile". DiarioLibre.com. 16 November 2010. Retrieved 13 September 2011. 
  134. ^ "Université Sorbonne Nouvelle - Paris3 - Docteur Honoris Causa 2010 de l'Université Sorbonne Nouvelle". Univ-paris3.fr. Retrieved 13 September 2011. 
  135. ^ Staff. "La ex presidenta chilena Bachelet, doctora honoris causa por la Sorbona - Noticias internacionales en MSN Latino". Noticias.latino.msn.com. Retrieved 13 September 2011. [dead link]
  136. ^ "Michelle Bachelet 2012 Commencement Speech at Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health". 12 May 2012. Retrieved 6 August 2012. 
  137. ^ "KULeuven". KULeuven.be. Retrieved 3 February 2015. 
  138. ^ "Bachelet Jeria S.E. Verónica Michelle decorato di Gran Cordone" (in Italian). Presidenza della Repubblica. Retrieved 20 September 2012. 
  139. ^ "Lithuanian Orders searching form" (in Lithuanian). Lithuanian Presidency. Retrieved 21 May 2012. 
  140. ^ "Commonwealth of Australia Gazette No. S160" (PDF). Governor General of Australia. Retrieved 7 November 2012. 
  141. ^ Boletín Oficial del Estado
  142. ^ Boletín Oficial del Estado
  143. ^ "Spain". Retrieved 1 November 2014. 
  144. ^ State visit of Chile to the Netherlans
  145. ^ PHOENIX Sendeplan Samstag, 18 March 2006, Bankkaufmann.com.

External links[edit]

Political offices
Preceded by
Alex Figueroa
Minister of Health
Succeeded by
Osvaldo Artaza
Preceded by
Mario Fernández
Minister of National Defense
Succeeded by
Jaime Ravinet
Preceded by
Ricardo Lagos
President of Chile
Succeeded by
Sebastián Piñera
Preceded by
Sebastián Piñera
President of Chile
Diplomatic posts
New office President pro tempore of the Union of South American Nations
Succeeded by
Rafael Correa
Executive Director of UN Women
Succeeded by
Lakshmi Puri